RE: Linux hacked
From: Nicholson, Dale (DNicholson_at_APACMail.com)
To: "Security Basics[List]" <email@example.com> Date: Mon, 25 Oct 2004 08:57:33 -0500
Thanks all for your support. The box remains offline for now but based on
all of the good ideas provided on this list I have decided to start from
scratch. I don't have the time or resources to ensure the machine is clean.
Tonight I'm going to format the hard disk and start rebuilding.
Does anyone have some good ideas on how to protect the machine while it's
getting setup? How about ipchains rules? The way I built the machine
before took almost a week to download and compile everything and I'm
paranoid about getting re-hacked while this process is going on.
One of the biggest differences from what I had set up before is I plan to
install tripwire. Does anyone have a script already written to get new
checksums when you upgrade a piece of software? How about experience
setting up tripwire? I'm not sure how to tell it which files need to be
looked at and which don't. I'm guessing this is a RTFM type of thing, but
if someone has a good script already written that I could use as an example
I would appreciate the help.
From: xyberpix [mailto:firstname.lastname@example.org]
Sent: Sunday, October 24, 2004 6:55 AM
Cc: Security Basics[List]; Nicholson, Dale
Subject: Re: Linux hacked
I'd just like to say that it's for mail's like this one below that I am
glad that I joined up to this list. Worthwhile info, no BS, and people
willing to help.
Dale, I'd also like to help out where I can on this one, feel free to
get hold me off list as well. I do have a load of Linux experience, and
security, so feel free.
Thanks to all for the help that I've received from you in the past as
On Thu, 2004-10-21 at 18:16, Miles Stevenson wrote:
> First of all, I'd like to point out that you are asking all the right
> questions, and that I'm impressed by how far you've come without having
> sysadmin experience.
> Contrary to the advice that you have been given thus far, I'm hoping that
> have not interacted with the system at all so far, aside from unplugging
> from the network and/or shutting it down. If this is the case, then don't.
> The first thing you want to do is take a forensically sound "image" of
> system, from which you can work. This way, you can work from the image,
> not the real system in trying to determine what happened and how you were
> attacked. I think the best approach, is to boot your system with a
> bootable CD, such as Knoppix STD, Phlak, or another forensics-focused
> bootable linux OS. After you boot up into the OS running from CD, you can
> connect the system back to your internal network. You can then use the dd
> netcat utilities, to take a perfect forensic snapshot of your system, and
> send that snapshot to another system on the network.
> Instead of explaining how to do this, I will point you to another resource
> order to save space:
> Once you have a forensic copy of your system, you can now safely continue
> investigation of what went wrong and why. You can also choose to
> wipe and rebuild your system if that is the most appropriate course of
> for you, and you decide to investigate later. But, the longer you wait to
> perform an investigation, the more difficult that investigation is going
> be. Choose carefully.
> The most important thing for you to keep in mind here, is that once your
> system has been compromised, you can *no longer trust ANY of the data on
> system*. Netstat might lie to you. Your kernel might lie to you. In
> the attacker could have made any alterations to your systems to change the
> way it behaves or what it reports to you. You can't trust the logs, you
> even trust the output of the commands. This is why you have to run these
> tools from a separate, TRUSTED source, such as from a read-only forensic
> like Phlak. Don't trust the "ls" command on the hacked system, but DO
> the "ls" command on your forensics disk. This is VERY important.
> This process is going to get more and more complicated as you continue,
> best handled by someone with experience. If you can get to this point, and
> then hand things over to someone else, I recommend it. If you are unable
> do that, then I am willing to help you as much as I can. But I think you
> should first get to this point of taking a forensic snapshot of your
> and obtaining a bootable forensic cd (I personally like Phlak, but there
> many others) that you can use as a tool. Once you get to this point, let
> know your situation, and we can continue. If I cover too much right now,
> only will I run the risk of "information overload", but I also have to
> making assumptions about your system in order to recommend how to proceed,
> and these assumptions can be disasterous, even when made by those of us
> know what we are doing. You can contact me off-list if you prefer.
> Good luck.
> On Wednesday 20 October 2004 12:52 pm, Nicholson, Dale wrote:
> > First let me say I'm a security novice. Please bear with me.
> > My home linux (gentoo) machine was hacked last Thursday. Installed
> > on the box was ssh, apache, php 5, and a squirl mail. Iptables was set
> > for a firewall. The box was set up as a web server with a number of
> > websites and about 35 email accounts (separate passwords for the mail
> > the user accounts on the box).
> > I'm guessing it was some sort of script kiddie if the names taking
> > for the hack in the hidden folders I found are any indication. I did
> > research on the person taking credit and found all kinds of information
> > him, he's an 18yr old kid in Germany. I doubt he is very knowledgeable
> > he would not have alerted me to the intrusion by somehow locking out all
> > accounts from the machine.
> > To get in I have to boot from cd and chroot in. Everything I've tried
> > been unsuccessful in getting root back.
> > I found a hidden directory /var/tmp/.tmp that has a bunch of directories
> > under it with names like +_01_+++++++HaXorEd by ... and
> > +_05_++++++++++Movies++++++....
> > I unplugged the machine from the internet shortly after the hack and can
> > find no evidence of any uploads. I do see that the person somehow was
> > to break root. I was only able to find the hidden directories because
> > person forgot to clean up root's history file where I found the command
> > used to create the them. The box was set up to not allow remote login
> > root via ssh but you could su in once logged in as one of three users.
> > I'm a novice at security and had been depending on my system admin to
> > the box up to date. He tells me he's been doing an emerge world every
> > but I don't know how to tell.
> > Can someone help me with where to get a listing of everything I have
> > installed and the versions? I can't remember if the kernel is a 2.4 or
> > but I think it's 2.6. Plus I know there have been problems with ssh in
> > past but I don't know which versions have problems and I'm not sure how
> > find out what version I'm running. I'm kind of stuck as my sys-admin
> > normally handles these things but he cannot ssh in to the box without me
> > first fixing the problem since he lives 13 hours from me (the box is in
> > basement).
> > Also, I need something that can detect root kits etc. on linux. I've
> > knoppix mentioned as having good tools on this list for an example, but
> > wouldn't know what tools to use for this particular case.
> > This is what I tried so far:
> > I logged in using a boot CD, mounted the hard disks, chrooted in,
> > out the root password in the /etc/shadow file, changed the root
> > rebooted and tried to log in normally. This did not work. I also
> > that the correct users were in both /etc/passwd and /etc/shadow.
> > Note that both the email and websites were still working despite not
> > able to log in, although not now of course since I unplugged the
> > cable.
> > Any comments/assistance will be greatly appreciated.
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