RE: Relative Security Provided by Cached Domain Credentials?

From: Kevan Smith (Kevan.Smith_at_tideworks.com)
Date: 06/01/04

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    Date: Tue, 1 Jun 2004 09:38:52 -0700
    To: "Sergey V. Gordeychik" <gordey@infosec.ru>
    
    

    Sergey,

    While you can archive profile-based key pairs in Windows, Windows has no direct access to the private keys stored on the smart card and hence cannot archive/export/share the keys. Reviewing the "Delegated Server Mode" section of http://www.microsoft.com/technet/prodtechnol/winxppro/deploy/cryptfs.mspx, it's clear the team who originally designed EFS wasn't even considering smart cards as they developed the technology, as they assumed the key pairs would be available to the server. The "EFS over WebDAV" section of the same reference seems to imply that MS has been working to address this problem, but I'm assuming it's taking a complete re-write of the code and isn't viewed as a high priority.

    Based on what I've seen so far, you CAN get EFS and smart cards to coexist in Windows. However, the path is fraught with limitations and potential problems, and should be taken with care (and probably a bit of help from the experts).

    Kevan S.

    -----Original Message-----
    From: Sergey V. Gordeychik [mailto:gordey@infosec.ru]
    Sent: Tuesday, June 01, 2004 5:55 AM
    To: Kevan Smith; Kim Oppalfens; Nicolas RUFF (lists); focus-ms@securityfocus.com
    Subject: RE: Relative Security Provided by Cached Domain Credentials?

    Where are no native EFS-smartcard support in W2K and higher. I think because slow speed of smartcards.
    But you can use EFS with smartcards because of caching EFS certificate and private keys.

    You can find detailed explanation here:

    http://www.securityfocus.com/archive/88/363013

    It tested and working.
    Thanks for you attention and sorry for my English.

    **************************************************************************
    Авторизованное обучение Microsoft по специализации Security в Учебном центре "Информзащита"
    http://www.infosec.ru/news/reliase/2004/03_18_04.htm

    -----Original Message-----
    From: Kevan Smith [mailto:Kevan.Smith@tideworks.com]
    Sent: Wednesday, May 26, 2004 7:41 PM
    To: Kim Oppalfens; Nicolas RUFF (lists); focus-ms@securityfocus.com
    Subject: RE: Relative Security Provided by Cached Domain Credentials?

    Thanks for the correction, Kim. I did some searching and confirmed that Smart Card support for EFS does not exist in W2K, W2K3, or XP. I've seen some speculation about Longhorn support, but nothing authoritative.

    Unfortunate, especially considering the limitations Nicolas brought up with profile-based certificate stores.

    References:
    http://www.infineon.com/cgi/ecrm.dll/jsp/showfrontend.do?lang=EN&channel
    _oid=-11308
    http://www.microsoft.com/technet/prodtechnol/winxppro/deploy/cryptfs.msp
    x (see Delegated Server Mode section)

    Kevan S.

    -----Original Message-----
    From: Kim Oppalfens [mailto:Kim.Oppalfens@azlan.be]
    Sent: Tuesday, May 25, 2004 6:56 AM
    To: Kevan Smith; Nicolas RUFF (lists); focus-ms@securityfocus.com
    Subject: RE: Relative Security Provided by Cached Domain Credentials?

    I have seen mentioned the use of smartcards for efs certificates in this thread a couple of times.

    Although it would be nice in theory it was my understanding that this cannot be used at present because not thought about in the efs API, so during decreption or encryption for that matter only the personal certificate store is checked for a key, not any smartcard related stuff.

    At least that is what I understood about efs and smartcards.
    Has any of you actually tested the smartcard solution, or it this how you would theoratically handle it?

    Kim Oppalfens

    -----Original Message-----
    From: Kevan Smith [mailto:Kevan.Smith@tideworks.com]
    Sent: dinsdag 11 mei 2004 22:47
    To: Nicolas RUFF (lists); focus-ms@securityfocus.com
    Subject: RE: Relative Security Provided by Cached Domain Credentials?

    We're testing the completeness of my understanding of Win2K3 PKIs, so feel free to correct me, but as I understand it the situation isn't quite as dire as Nicolas makes it sound.

    True, EFS certificates (indeed, all user certificates) are stored either in the users profile (locally on the client computer) or on a smartcard, depending your implementation. With certs stored in your user profile, the private key portion of the cert is stored locally on the client computer, and possibly archived on the issuing CA *. These certs are NOT available (to anyone) from other computers unless the user first exports/imports his/her certificate to all his/her workstations.

    So, even if an attacker cracks a user's password, he/she will still need the certificate to access the EFS encrypted files, which requires that they launch the attack while logged on locally to the victim's computer(s).
    Granted, it may be possible to drop a remote control backdoor on the box to log on undetected, or do any number of other nasty things to achieve the same effect, but it certainly raises the bar.

    While AEFSDR (or similar tools) looks like a handy addition to any administrators grab-bag, it doesn't lift any hurdles facing a hacker.

    If the EFS encrypted data is important enough (or the user hops workstations enough), you can remove the user's profile from the picture by requiring smart cards for EFS. The key pairs are stored on the card rather than the computer, allowing users to roam, and forcing the attacker to acquire both the username/password to logon to the computer, and the smart card/PIN to access the files.

    Cheers,

    Kevan S.

    * Private/Public key pairs may be archived to the CA under the following
    circumstances:
            - V2 certificate (V1 certificates cannot be archived)
            - Issued FROM a Windows 2003 Enterprise or DataCenter edition CA

                    (not Standard Ed)
            - Issued TO a user (as opposed to a computer)
            - Issued FOR encryption/authentication purposes (not signing/
                    non-repudiation).
            - Client certificate must be stored in the user profile. You cannot

                    archive certificates issued to a smart card.

    -----Original Message-----
    From: Nicolas RUFF (lists) [mailto:ruff.lists@edelweb.fr]
    Sent: Tuesday, May 11, 2004 11:02 AM
    To: focus-ms@securityfocus.com
    Subject: Re: Relative Security Provided by Cached Domain Credentials?

    > triple DES from memory
    >
    >>On a related note to part of the discussion in the 'Restricting change

    >>of local admin' thread, does anyone know of a non-brute force way to
    >>break the encryption on cached domain credentials? Local accounts are

    >>easily modified or reset, but I'm not aware of any similar exploits
    >>for cached domain credentials. Given that EFS' effectiveness to
    >>secure laptop-stored data in a domain environment lives and dies by
    >>the security of the cached credentials, I'm curious to know just *how
    >>much* more secure they are.

            Hi,

    About EFS :
    -----------

    - EFS encryption is 3DES (unless you have a restricted export version of Windows), with a random FEK (File Encryption Key) for each file.
    - FEK is encrypted with RSA, using the EFS User Certificate (Public Key).
    - Eventually, the user Private Key is encrypted with his Windows Password.

    So if you know the user password, you can decipher all EFS encrypted files.
    See "Advanced EFS Data Recovery" tool from ElcomSoft :
    http://www.elcomsoft.com/aefsdr.html

    About Cached Logons :
    ---------------------

    Cached logons are stored in LSA Secrets and NL$ hidden keys. Basically, it is a salted hash :
    NTLMHash( username + NTLMHash(password) ) so you have to bruteforce. The salt key is the username, so if you have N accounts to crack, it takes N times the time to crack one account.

    Since this attack is very time-consuming and has little chance to succeed if user password > 6 chars, there is no public exploit available. Hint : get an IDA Pro license if you want to know more :-)

    -nicolas-

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