[UNIX] AS/400 Users Enumeration via POP3

From: SecuriTeam (support_at_securiteam.com)
Date: 04/17/05

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    Date: 17 Apr 2005 19:37:28 +0200
    
    

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      AS/400 Users Enumeration via POP3
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------

    SUMMARY

    The POP3 service installed on all modern AS/400 servers, which is turned
    on by default even in those cases where email serving was not setup,
    allows remote attackers to enumerate local users of the AS/400 machine.

    DETAILS

    Vulnerable Systems:
     * AS/400 version 4.5 and prior

    Note: Previous versions display an uninteresting generic message "-ERR
    Logon attempt invalid".

    To access a POP3 server, you must authenticate and provide a user and a
    password. Unfortunately, the POP3 users represent real AS/400 user
    profiles, POP3 will authenticate any valid user profile, and the service
    provides too much information during authentication.

    Let's select a random list of names and passwords, connect to POP3 with a
    telnet client of your choice, and try to authenticate. Here is what a POP3
    session with an AS/400 server looks like:
    +OK POP3 server ready
    USER bogus
    +OK POP3 server ready
    PASS xyz
    -ERR Logon attempt invalid CPF2204
    USER qsysopr
    +OK POP3 server ready
    PASS xyz
    -ERR Logon attempt invalid CPF22E2
    USER jdavid
    +OK POP3 server ready
    PASS xyz
    -ERR Logon attempt invalid CPF22E3
    USER rbenny
    +OK POP3 server ready
    PASS xyz
    -ERR Logon attempt invalid CPF22E4
    USER qspl
    +OK POP3 server ready
    PASS xyz
    -ERR Logon attempt invalid CPF22E5
    USER SCARMEL
    +OK POP3 server ready
    PASS myrealpwd
    +OK start sending message
    quit

    The error messages can interpreted as:
    bogus Error CPF2204 User profile not found
    qsysopr Error CPF22E2 Good user, password not correct for user profile
    jdavid Error CPF22E3 Good user, bur user profile is disabled
    rbenny Error CPF22E4 Good user, but password for user profile has expired
    qspl Error CPF22E5 Good user, but no password associated with user profile
    scarmel OK Good password, good user

    The POP3 gateway provides us with yet another way to verify the existence
    and validity of AS/400 user profiles and passwords. In contrast with
    Telnet, this method will not disable the terminal device because there is
    no device. This behavior is similar to that of FTP, which also does not
    disable the client after unsuccessful login attempts. However, the amount
    of information disclosed by the server is significantly higher than that
    of FTP. An automated tool can easily create a list of valid user profiles
    and of their current status on the server, providing a vector for a social
    engineering attack. Another factor that is relevant to the POP3 technique
    is the lack of exit programs associated with the service. Most other
    services that demand user authentication can be associated with a
    user-defined exit program that runs whenever the protocol is used.
    Unsuccessful log in attempts are logged only in the security audit
    journal, and only if it is turned on. This lack! of control makes POP3
    the easier anonymous way to enumerate and list the user profiles.

    Countermeasures:
    The POP3 service is very rarely used on iSeries servers, and therefore
    should be stopped and disabled from starting. The unsuccessful attempts
    are logged only in the security audit log, if the audit log is turned on.

    ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

    The information has been provided by <mailto:shalom@venera.com > Shalom
    Carmel.
    The original article can be found at:
    <http://www.venera.com/downloads/Enumeration_of_AS400_users_via_pop3.pdf>
    http://www.venera.com/downloads/Enumeration_of_AS400_users_via_pop3.pdf

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