[NEWS] eSeSIX Thintune Thin Client Multiple Vulnerabilities

From: SecuriTeam (support_at_securiteam.com)
Date: 07/25/04

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      eSeSIX Thintune Thin Client Multiple Vulnerabilities
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------

    SUMMARY

     <http://www.thintune.com> Thintune is "a series of thin client appliances
    sold by eSeSIX GmbH, Germany". They offer ICA, RDP, X11 and SSH support
    based on a customized Linux platform. Multiple security vulnerabilities
    have been found in the product allowing complete compromise of the system.

    DETAILS

    Affected Product:
    All Linux-based Thintune models with firmware version 2.4.38 and prior

    The following device was tested:
     * Thintune M, Firmware version 2.4.38-32-D
     * VIA Centaur processor (533 MHz), 128 MB RAM
    Software version: JSTREAM II 2.4.38

    According to the vendor, all Linux based Thintune models with firmware
    version up to (and including) v2.4.38 are affected. The vulnerabilities 1,
    2, 3 and 4 are fixed in firmware version 2.4.39. eSeSIX claims that
    Windows CE based Thintune models are not vulnerable.

    Vulnerabilities:
    1. REMOTE ROOT SHELL / BACKDOOR
    By connecting to an undocumented process on the Thintune over the network
    an attacker can gain full control over the thin client without notice by
    the local user. This includes running installed programs, transferring
    files to and from the network, powering down the system and updating the
    firmware.

    Details:
    There is an undocumented process listening on TCP port 25072 that can be
    given one of the following commands after authenticating by a short
    password. This password ("jstwo") is hardcoded into the /usr/bin/radmin
    shell script and cannot be changed via the configuration interface. [1]

    shell - give root shell
    version - show hardware version
    beep - start beeping
    restart - reboot immediately
    poweroff - power off immediately
    info - display pop-up message via xmsg
    firmware - download firmware from given URL
    getreg - get local configuration settings

    Exploit:
    $ nc 192.168.1.77 25702
    JSRAFV-1
    jstwo <- hardcoded password
    +yep
    shell <- one of several commands shown above
    +yep here you are ...
    id <- run "id" to show my privileges
    uid=0(root) gid=0(root)

    The Thintune firmware includes BusyBox v0.47 which gives you access to nc,
    dd, tar, mount, kill, powerdown and other utilities. In my case, there was
    about 4MB of free space on the flash card used as hard drive.

    According to the vendor, this backdoor is used by the eSeSIX support team
    when the management software is not available at the customer site or is
    not working correctly.

    [1] Of course you could change the hardcoded password after exploiting
    vulnerabilities #1 or #3 and gaining a root shell.

    Recommended fix:
    Upgrade to firmware version 2.4.39 or newer. (The backdoor stays in place
    but uses a challenge-response system for authentication)

    Temporary workaround:
    Open local root shell by exploiting vulnerability #3 (see below), edit
    /etc/inetd.conf and delete the line concerning port 25702. Reboot.

    2. DETERMINE PASSWORDS REMOTELY
    All configuration settings can be acquired remotely, including saved user
    names and passwords for RDP and ICA connections as well passwords for the
    local VNC server, the JStream control center and the screensaver.

    Details:
    The Keeper library [2] is used to store all JStream configuration
    settings. Configuration files are stored in the /root/.keeper/ directory.
    Every section of the database has its own subdirectory and every
    configuration setting is put into a file in that subdirectory.

    [2] <http://kempelen.iit.bme.hu/~mszeredi/keeper/keeper.html>
    http://kempelen.iit.bme.hu/~mszeredi/keeper/keeper.html

    By browsing the local file system or (more comfortably) using the "getreg"
    command shown above, one can remotely read out this Keeper database. The
    following sections and keys may be particularly interesting for an
    attacker:

    desktop shadow_password - VNC password (VNC is called "shadowing")
    security adminpassword - control center (administrator) password
    security userpassword - screen saver password

    ica con_0_9 - username for first ICA connection
    ica con_0_10 - password for first ICA connection
    ica con_0_11 - domain for first ICA connection
    ica con_0_3 - address for first ICA connection

    rdp con_0_6 - username for first RDP connection
    rdp con_0_7 - password for first RDP connection
    rdp con_0_8 - domain for first RDP connection
    rdp con_0_3 - address for first RDP connection

    Connection settings and passwords for other protocols can be found in the
    rdppro, ssh, tarantella and rexec subdirectories in the same way.

    All passwords are stored in clear text in the corresponding files.

    Exploit:
    $ nc 192.168.1.77 25702
    JSRAFV-1
    jstwo
    +yep
    getreg
    +yep enter section and key
    desktop shadow_password
    myVNCpwd

    Recommended fix:
    Upgrade to firmware version 2.4.39 or newer.

    Temporary workaround:
    Open local root shell by exploiting vulnerability #3 (see below), edit
    /etc/inetd.conf and delete the line concerning port 25702. Reboot.

    3. LOCAL ROOT SHELL
    Any local user of the thin client can launch a local root shell by
    pressing some keys and entering a special password. Attackers could use
    this shell to acquire all passwords in the Keeper database (see above).

    This feature has not been documented, but is shown to the customer during
    support sessions when needed.

    Exploit:
    Press <CTRL><SHIFT><ALT><DEL> and enter "maertsJ" as password. An xterm
    window is launched that runs with root privileges. The password is
    hardcoded into the /usr/bin/lshell executable and cannot be changed.

    For an alternate attack vector, use the Phoenix web browser to open the
    file /usr/bin/lshell with itself (see below).

    Recommended fix:
    Upgrade to firmware version 2.4.39 or newer, which uses a
    challenge-response system for authentication.

    Temporary workaround:
    Delete /usr/bin/lshell (Be sure to apply workarounds for vulnerabilities 1
    and 2 first).

    4. VIEW CLEARTEXT PASSWORDS LOCALLY VIA WEB BROWSER
    Any local user can browse the complete file system by using an existing
    web browser connection and entering a simple URL into the address bar. As
    the control center, screensaver and VNC passwords are stored in clear text
    files; a local attacker can read them.

    Details:
    The Thintune software supports WWW access for end users via the Phoenix
    web browser (now called Mozilla Firefox).

    Entering "file:///" into the Phoenix URL address bar shows the root
    directory of the local file system. As Phoenix is run with root
    privileges, there are no restrictions concerning the files that can be
    viewed.

    Using this technique, clear text passwords can be found in several files.
    Some examples:

    /root/.keeper/desktop/shadow_password - VNC
    /root/.keeper/desktop/security/adminpassword - control center
    /root/.keeper/security/userpassword - screen saver password
    /usr/bin/radmin - remote control (see Vuln.#1)

    Note: Web browsing has to be enabled by the administrator in the JStream
    control center by creating a Web connection. Access to the JStream control
    center can be password protected. Nevertheless, by exploiting
    vulnerability 3 and viewing the configuration file a local attacker can
    easily determine this password and get access to the control center.

    Recommended fix:
    Upgrade to firmware version 2.4.39 or newer (The browser has been put into
    a sandbox.)

    Temporary workaround:
    Delete all Phoenix connections.

    5. PROBLEMATIC PASSWORD CHECKING
    When prompted for the control center and lshell passwords, you do not have
    to press <Enter> to complete your input. Authentication takes place as
    soon as you have given the right password. This could make password
    guessing much easier.

    Example:
    Password is "a". No matter if you try "automobile", "any" or "afternoon"
    -- as soon as you press the first "a" you are authenticated.

    Recommended fix:
    No fix is available at the moment.

    Temporary workaround:
    Choose long passwords.

    Method Used for Research
    Try browsing the local file system via the "file:///"-URL. Further
    examination gives the following interesting details:
     * local configuration files are placed in /root/.keeper
     * Two files in /root/.keeper/security/ show the administrator and
    screensaver passwords in cleartext.
     * /usr/bin/radmin seems to be a shell script that offers remote control
    commands. Password is shown in cleartext.

    Opening /usr/bin/lshell (local shell?) via the web browser gives password
    prompt. Password is not known at this point
     * /root/.icewm/keys shows that lshell can be run by pressing
    <CTRL><ALT><SHIFT><DEL>

    Nmap portscan against Thintune shows open TCP port 25702 (among others).
    Connecting to this port gives the "JSRAFV-1" reply that was found in local
    file /usr/bin/radmin before.

    Gain remote root shell by giving the password found in /usr/bin/radmin and
    transfer local file system over the network using dd and nc.

    Viewing /usr/bin/lshell in hex-editor on remote system shows clear text
    password for local shell access.

    Browsing the /root/.keeper/ directory shows all connection settings in
    clear text.

    Playing with the "getreg" command reveals that all settings can be
    acquired remotely.

    Disclosure Timeline:
    2004-05-29 Vulnerabilities found by Dirk Loss
    2004-06-02 Vendor notification per phone and E-Mail
    2004-06-07 Vendor confirms vulnerabilities and promises fixing the
    problems in next firmware release
    2004-07-16 New firmware v2.4.39 released including fixes for problems 1-4
    2004-07-24 Public disclosure

    ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

    The information has been provided by <mailto:Dirk.Loss@it-consult.net>
    Dirk Loss.

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