[NEWS] Cisco Content Service Switch 11000 Series DNS Negative Cache of Information Denial-of-Service Vulnerability

From: SecuriTeam (support_at_securiteam.com)
Date: 05/05/03

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      Cisco Content Service Switch 11000 Series DNS Negative Cache of
    Information Denial-of-Service Vulnerability
    ------------------------------------------------------------------------

    SUMMARY

    The Cisco Content Service Switch (CSS) 11000 and 11500 series switches
    respond to certain Domain Name Service (DNS) name server record requests
    with an error code and no Start of Authority (SOA) records, which can be
    negatively cached by some DNS name servers resulting in a potential
    denial-of-service attack for a particular domain name hosted by a CSS. To
    be affected by this vulnerability, CSS devices must be configured for
    Global Server Load Balancing. The CERT/CC issued a vulnerability note on
    this issue (VU#714121). Cisco is providing repaired software, and
    customers are urged to upgrade to repaired code.

    This vulnerability in CSS is documented as Cisco Bug IDs CSCdz62499 and
    CSCea36989.

    DETAILS

    Affected Products:
    The CSS 11000 and 11500 series switches (formerly known as Arrowpoint)
    consist of the CSS 11050, CSS 11150, CSS 11800 11501, 11503, and 11506
    hardware platforms. They run the Cisco WebNS software.

    CSS 11000 and 11500 series switches running any WebNS software revision
    are affected by this vulnerability only if they are configured for Global
    Server Load Balancing (also known as DNS Load Balancing).

    To determine if your CSS equipment is configured for Global Server Load
    Balancing, please check the configuration for the DNS-server command. If
    this command is not present, the configuration is not vulnerable to this
    issue.

    No other Cisco product is currently known to be affected by this
    vulnerability.

    Details:
    Commonly, the name service in use by the Internet, DNS, uses various
    record types for queries between DNS servers and clients. The common
    record types are Address records (A-records), Name Server records (NS
    records), Mail Exchange (MX records), Start of Authority records (SOA
    records), and Canonical Name records (CNAME records). Each record or query
    type has various rules and formats associated with it, including details
    about what may be cached, what may be trusted by other clients, etc.

    Clients usually send queries to a local server, and that local server may
    send further queries to other servers on behalf of that client in order to
    formulate a response for the client. When the local server receives the
    responses, it will cache the information for future use and will respond
    to the client.

    The CSS 11000 and 11500 series switches have the ability to act as an
    authoritative DNS name server and will only respond to DNS A-record
    requests. If a CSS configured for DNS via the Global Server Load Balancing
    feature receives a DNS request or query for an unsupported record type,
    the CSS will respond with rcode 4 "not implemented" or rcode 3 "NXDOMAIN,"
    depending on the version of WebNS. When an NXDOMAIN response code is
    received, the querying server will typically stop attempting to resolve
    any other record type for that name. For example, an NXDOMAIN response to
    the AAAA query may stop the server from sending an A query, though there
    may indeed be an A-record in existence. Some resolvers that receive an
    NXDOMAIN response and support negative caching will not query for
    A-records for the same name until the negatively cached error response has
    expired, which can take an extended period of time.

    When the DNS query received is for a legitimate host name but an
    unsupported record type, these negative responses may be cached by various
    proxies or caching nameservers and will lead to apparent temporary service
    outages when other clients query the caching nameserver or proxy for the
    legitimate host name. Though network services are physically unaffected,
    end users are dependent upon name resolution, and the lack of correct DNS
    information can result in effective service outages.

    Cisco Bug ID CSCdz62499 was the first fix, which changed the response from
    rcode 3 to rcode 4. This result code is also negatively cached, so the
    complete fix has been correctly addressed with Cisco Bug ID CSCea36989.

    The CSS will now return an RFC 2308-compliant NODATA type 3 response,
    which is an authoritative answer with rcode=NOERROR, answer=0, and no SOA.
    This response should cause the specific client to query for another
    A-record instead of continuing to query for the unsupported record type or
    using the negatively cached error message or NXDOMAIN answer.

    Impact:
    Exploitation of this vulnerability would result in a sporadic or partial
    denial of service, affecting only the users of the DNS services that cache
    the negative response information in response to an unsupported query type
    from that same user base. The administrators of the affected CSS and
    associated resources may not be aware of any exploitation, since there are
    no locally apparent symptoms. Only certain user groups would be affected,
    which may cause significant difficulty in troubleshooting customer reports
    of problems.

    Software Versions and Fixes:
    The following table summarizes the CSS software releases affected by the
    defect described in this notice and provides scheduled dates on which the
    earliest corresponding fixed releases will be available. Dates are
    tentative and subject to change.

    When selecting a release, keep in mind the following definitions.

    A maintenance release is the most heavily tested and highly recommended
    release.

    An interim release has much less testing than a maintenance release and
    should be selected only if no other suitable release fixes the defect.

    In all cases, customers should exercise caution to be certain the devices
    to be upgraded contain sufficient memory and that current hardware and
    software configurations will continue to be supported properly by the new
    release.

    A table containing a detailed list of affected products and their
    corresponding patch can be found at:
     
    <http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/707/cisco-sa-20030430-dns.shtml#software> http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/707/cisco-sa-20030430-dns.shtml#software.

    Obtaining Fixed Software:
    Cisco is offering free software upgrades to remedy this vulnerability for
    all affected customers. Customers may only install and expect support for
    the feature sets they have purchased.

    Customers with contracts should obtain upgraded software through their
    regular update channels. For most customers, this means that upgrades
    should be obtained through the Software Center on Cisco's worldwide
    website at http://www.cisco.com.

    Customers whose Cisco products are provided or maintained through prior or
    existing agreement with third-party support organizations such as Cisco
    Partners, authorized resellers, or service providers should contact that
    support organization for assistance with the upgrade, which should be free
    of charge.

    Customers who purchase direct from Cisco but who do not hold a Cisco
    service contract and customers who purchase through third-party vendors
    but are unsuccessful at obtaining fixed software through their point of
    sale should get their upgrades by contacting the Cisco Technical
    Assistance Center (TAC). In those cases, customers may only upgrade to a
    later version of the same release as indicated by the applicable row in
    the Software Versions and Fixes table. TAC contacts are as follows:
     * +1 800 553 2447 (toll free from within North America)
     * +1 408 526 7209 (toll call from anywhere in the world)
     * e-mail: tac@cisco.com

    See <http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/687/Directory/DirTAC.shtml>
    http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/687/Directory/DirTAC.shtml for additional
    TAC contact information, including special localized telephone numbers and
    instructions and e-mail addresses for use in various languages.

    Please have your product serial number available and give the URL of this
    notice as evidence of your entitlement to a free upgrade. Free upgrades
    for non-contract customers must be requested through the TAC.

    Please do not contact either "psirt@cisco.com" or
    "security-alert@cisco.com" for software upgrades.

    Workarounds:
    The workaround for this issue is to disable Global Server Load Balancing
    and to configure DNS records for the affected servers and domains on a
    separate compliant DNS server until an upgrade to repaired versions can be
    installed.

    ADDITIONAL INFORMATION

    The information has been provided by <mailto:psirt@cisco.com> Cisco
    Systems Product Security Incident Response Team.

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